Have you ever thrown something together with the main intention of eliminating some ingredients in your refrigerator and it turned out to be an amazing creation?
Do you know what’s the result?
You then have to re-stock your fridge with the stuff that you wanted to get rid off in the first place!
This is one of those incidents. I recently had a burger night for about half a dozen guests. I bought so many different kinds of cheese and fruit that we couldn’t finish them in one meal, so I came up with this quiche tart, and it become a hit. I wanted to share the recipe before the fresh fruit season is over. Don’t worry, I will get back to the curry and noodles and all other Thai recipes soon after this.
Okay, let’s start with the ingredients.
Ingredients for the tart shell:
(You can also use my other tart shell in the tomato tart recipe here if you are allergic to almonds or don’t want to use almond flour.)
Almond flour 140g
All purpose flour or cake flour 70g
Confectionary sugar (Icing sugar) 50g
Cold butter 75g
Cold jumbo size egg 1 (about 50-55g)
Oil or butter to grease the tart shell
Method for the tart shell:
1) Measure all the flour, sugar, salt, and butter into a large bowl and turn on the oven at 350ºF.
2) Use a fork, pastry blender or food processor to blend the mixture by cutting the butter in to the flour.
3) Once the mixture is all blended well, then you add a cold egg. Combine it with the previous mixture until it forms a ball.
You can refrigerate the mixture if you like, but I didn’t. I use almond flour to help make my tart shell flaky without having to fuss with it so much.
4) Spray the tart shell (I used an oblong one, 13-3/4”x4-1/4”) with oil or brush butter on it, then evenly pat the dough onto the bottom and the sides of the tart shell.
5) Lightly prick the bottom of the crust with a fork to prevent the dough from puffing up as it bakes.
6) Bake for 20 minutes. While you’re waiting for the crust, make the filling.
7) Once the crust is cooked, take it out and let it cool (you are probably in the middle of making the filling anyway,) and leave the oven on. You will need it again soon after you fill the crust. Also, you won’t need to seal it with egg white or apricot glaze ;) Wait and see my “sealing method” in the next section.
Ingredients for the filling:
American cheese, sliced (I used the organic one from Trader Joe’s) 3 slices
Cream cheese 125g
Jumbo egg 2 eggs
Prosciutto 2 slices cut in to strips about 1/4” wide and no more than 1” long (total about 2 tablespoons)
Caramelized onion, roughly chopped 2 tablespoons
Crumbled or grated cheese of your choice (I used gorgonzola, smoked gouda and cheddar) 1/3 cup
Salt 1/2 teaspoon
Ground pepper 1 teaspoon
Green onion, sliced thinly (You can use other herbs of your choice too) about 2 tablespoons
Sliced provolone cheese 3 slices
Cut up fruits of your choice (I used figs and peaches last time. They both turned out so good. A friend reported using apricots and that was good, too.) 2 large peaches or 1/2 lb. of figs
Olive tapenade 2-3 tablespoons (This actually can be omitted if you don’t like it, but it adds wonderful flavors to the tart. If you don’t want to use this, add more salt to the cream cheese and egg mixture.)
Method for the filling:
1) Start with the cream cheese, using a mixer, either handheld or KitchenAid; your choice. I used my handheld. Cream the cream cheese.
2) Add the eggs and salt and mix until well-blended. This would normally take quite a while. Don’t be alarmed if it doesn’t blend right away—keep mixing.
3) Once the mixture is all smooth, fluffy and creamy, then you can stop using the mixer. From now you only need a spatula. Add the prosciutto, caramelized onion, crumbed cheese or grated cheese and green onion; mix well.
4) Now you are ready to assemble the quiche. First, line the crust with American cheese slices. This is to protect the crust from the moisture in the filling. (Yes, this is my sealing method…yummy, isn’t it?)
5) Spread the olive tapenade on top of the cheese slices.
6) Put the cream cheese and eggs mixture inside the rest of the space.
7) Put the fruit on top of the cream cheese and eggs mixture. (No, I’ve not forgotten about the provolone slices. Just wait, and please don’t eat them while waiting!)
8) Bake at 350ºF for 30 minutes.
9) Open the oven and lay the provolone cheese slices on top of the fruit. (I hope you listened to me about NOT eating them while you waited!)
10) Drop the temperature down to 300ºF and bake another 15 minutes, or even 20 minutes. This is to make sure that the quiche sets properly.
11) Take it out of the oven and let it cool down a little before you slice it out of the tray and cut, or the whole thing will be very runny.
As a variation, you could replace the fruit with mushrooms. A friend already tested this recipe and used BACON on top instead of fruit. How can any food taste bad with this amount of cheese and bacon, right? Be creative and enjoy your invention ;)
When the summer full moon struck Manhattan Beach, it could have been forecasting a new and unexpected event, such as a Thai girl not only making a French dessert but blogging about it too :) This is actually not the first time I’m blogging about a French dessert. In fact, my very first blog was for French macarons. This, my 101st blog, will follow the same tradition.
This time it is about Kouign-Amann, the French, or, to be exact, the Breton pastry, that has a name that sounds like it is from the Middle East but is truly French born.
OK…don’t go WTF just yet. Wait until you finish making this, and maybe even better is to wait until after you actually eat them.
Kouign-Amann is pronounced “kween-yah-mann” or “Ku-eeen Aah-man”. No, I didn’t know how to pronounce this from birth, or by birth either. I called Kouign-Amann “the thing” (I know…sorry) or “the Breton crunchy cake” for at the least 2-3 decades. That’s all. Not so long. It’s so difficult to figure out how to pronounce. This time I got my husbanditor-dictionary to give me the correct pronunciation. (Ahhh…good thing I married someone who can read French!)
What is this pastry exactly?
If I use French pastry terminology, I would say this is a “laminated dough with a sugar layer, baked in sugar and butter until the sugar turns into caramel”, but I don’t think there is a pastry chef who doesn’t know Kouign-Amann.
Laminated dough is the term used to describe dough that is wrapped around a block of butter, then rolled out with the butter still in between until thin, and then folded. The butter will eventually divide the dough into several layers. After the first folding, the dough is rolled out and folded several more times and that multiplies the number of layers.
Kouign-Amann uses bread dough and is laminated just like croissant dough except, after the last roll out, the dough would be covered with granulated sugar before folding.
According to many, many pastry cookbooks, Kouign-Amann is a traditional Breton dessert, including the name. Kouign = Cake, Amann = Butter (These are Breton French not French French words). This is considered a butter cake in Brittany. (For those of you geographically challenged, like me, Brittany is the Western-most province of France, closest to England.)
And so it introduced itself to me as a cake the first time we met. I was in England and someone brought this cake back from France as a gift to the hostess. It was big and round just like cake, with the caramelized sugar crust on the top just like creme brûlée, even though the top is quite uneven. Once it got cut, I saw that it was actually not a typical texture of a cake but looked more like a very dense croissant with several layers.
It was actually not that easy to cut with a spoon. It had some resistance and crunchiness, totally unlike cake, and the first bite nearly brought tears to my eyes. How much of my life had been wasted not knowing that this thing existed?! What a shame! The crunchiness was from caramelized sugar melted with butter that was coated on the outside, just like toffee. The texture of the cake was like bread but unlike bread pudding, because that has some kind of custard mixed in. This one is dry and clean but flaky and buttery, so buttery, like the dough has been sitting in a block of butter and had just shaken off the excess in the oven right before it was served.
I know this is going to turn some of you off, thinking it is so not worth it to clog your arteries with it. Well, you are wrong. It’s worth it. (Also, read the new research about heart decease and eating saturated fat.) If I were to die from eating, my wish would be that it was from Kouign-Amann. If my last bite on this earth is Kouign-Amann, I will have died happy.
After my first introduction, I went looking into the history. (Yes, I was THAT curious about food at a young age). It said Yves René Scordia, a baker from Douarnenez in Brittany created it and began selling the pastry in 1860. Some say he was inspired by Norwegian pastry. Some say that he was just attempting to salvage his failed bread dough by adding butter and sugar. But whatever he did, here came a wonderful dessert left behind for us to remember him by, well over hundred years later.
It was a very long time before I attempted to make my own Kouign-Amann. It was intimidating, you know. The laminated dough, the amount of butter used, the SUGAR! Oh my gosh, it was all a little too much to accomplish perfectly, having so little skill in baking as a Thai girl. Back then I didn’t even know how to make a pie crust or bread yet.
Then I was introduced to a little thing called Kouignette, a little tiny Kouign-Amann, about a four-bite size. Ohhhh…this is even BETTER! There is more area to be caramelized and you don’t have to eat a whole wedge of cake anymore. It’s like a cupcake or mini cup cake.
Then I moved to America…phewwwww. You couldn’t even try to find either Kouign-Amann or Kouignette (this is back in 1992) because they were nearly non-existent back then, plus I was living on the allowance of an international graduate student that couldn’t work, so I probably would not have been able to afford it anyway.
I finally found that actually in the US there were some bakeries selling Kouignette, but they were called Kouign-Amann regardless of the size. They didn’t look that appealing and, once the customers found out what was in them, they avoided them. You know how the Americans always eat very sensibly and always eat healthy foods (lol), low-fat, fat-free, low-carb, low-sugar, sugar-free, gluten-free, pretty confusing but all for the health, right? So, Kouign-Amann didn’t fit in any of those categories.
This little dessert is filled with carbs, flour and sugar and fat, real butter (until someone can invent a fat-free butter—come on guys, it shouldn’t be that hard!) The recipe could have freaked the US population out completely. Thank God they haven’t banned the making of this dessert. One of the original bakeries I found in NYC that made this dessert quite well has already closed, Fauchon Bakery on Park Avenue in NYC.
Then a series of bakeries in the metropolitan area slowly embraced this dessert, even though some people still called it the “poison-filled dessert”. Bouchon bakery in Beverly Hills, Dominique Ansel Bakery in Soho (This one is called DKA), McCall’s Meat and Fish Co. in Los Feliz, CA, Bread Lounge in LA, Amandine Patisserie, also in LA and Starter Bakery, the bakery truck in Oakland.
So why am I making them now?
Well, since I’ve recently acquired a new set of skills, thanks to Nantana Chitman, whom I respect dearly as a mentor, who created the online group “C is for Croissant”, and pulled people to start making homemade croissants. I pushed myself through practicing making my own croissants until they come out pretty good these days.
Of course, it was this grand step that made the making of Kouign-Amann quite easy to me. Also, the closet bakery that made Kouign-Amann near my house, Bouchon, is still 15 miles away and could take me 20-40 minutes to get there. And the most important part, no one makes Kouign-Amann exactly the way I wanted. So, I ended up making my own.
What’s the “missing” ingredient in the dessert enough for me to sweat it?
This is a Breton dessert, and I got used to it with some buckwheat flour in the mix. Also some of those bakeries don’t bake them long enough to make the sugar caramelize, and most of them don’t make it the size I want.
Here we go; let’s start making this dessert. I want it so tiny tiny, about 1”x 1”. My plan is that I can just pop them in my mouth like candies…actually, I want to make them small so I don’t have to eat a whole big piece, because I would if it came that way.
Organic all purpose flour 250g
(Optional) Buckwheat flour 25g (If you don’t want to use buckwheat flour you need to substitute with 25g more of all purpose flour or whole wheat flour)
Sugar, from 175 – 225g (I used only 175g, but most other recipes would use much more than that. This is entirely your preference. I use less sugar because I don’t want it to be too sweet inside, but I want a lot of caramelized sugar on the outside.)
Water at 90 ºF, from 145 – 172g (I gave this recipe to a friend in Thailand and she reported using less water than the recipe. She didn’t use buckwheat flour and used all 275g of all purpose flour with 140g of water. I used buckwheat flour and use 172g of water. If I used all white flour I would used 160g of water. So adjust it accordingly.)
Fresh yeast 5g or use 2g instant yeast or 2.5g of active dry yeast (I hope you know the different between those yeasts. IMPORTANT: DO NOT USE SOURDOUGH STARTER)
Butter, a block between 150g – 225g (This depends on your laminating skill. I like using 175g of butter the most for myself, but Pierre Hermé uses 225g in his recipe, same as Ladurée)
Extra butter for brushing the mold 10 – 20g (The butter should be soft but not melted)
1) Mix the flour, salt (make sure it doesn’t touch the yeast directly), buckwheat flour and yeast with a dough hook or by hand. If you are using fresh yeast or active dry yeast, mix it in water and a tablespoon or flour first and see if it foams before mixing it in the dough. You don’t need to do this with instant yeast.
Add the water in small amounts, adding more if the dough needs it. You can tell you need more by the way that the dough won’t combine into one lump but still scatters dry bits all over the mixing bowl.
You don’t need to mix it a lot. Just mix it enough so all the ingredients are combined and form a uniform dough. No need to check for the windowpane. You shouldn’t be able to pass the windowpane test. Just clean in the bowl will be fine. We will be working the dough in many, many more layers. If you mix it until the dough forms gluten enough to pass the windowpane test, you will have a hard time rolling the dough later.
2) Put the dough in a bowl and let it rise to double in size, about 2 hours for me, but it will be different in every house depending on the temperature, humidity, and what type of yeast you are using.
3) While you are waiting for the dough to rise, pound the butter with a rolling pin until it’s soft.
The butter should be “pliable”. Wrap the butter in parchment paper and roll it to fit the size your are working toward. I would recommend 14”x 8” size. Then put the butter in the fridge.
4) Once the dough has doubled in volume, take the dough out, put it on the rolling board and roll it out to a size about 1/3 longer than the length of your butter block, and the same width (21”x 8”).
5) Take the butter block out of the fridge and roll the rolling pin over the butter block again one more time until it is back to the pliable stage again.
6) Place the butter to cover 2/3 of the dough on one side, leaving 1/3 uncovered.
7) Fold the uncovered side over the middle onto the butter block.
8) Fold the other buttered side carefully over the middle. This is called “the envelope fold.”
9) Wrap the whole block in plastic and put it in the refrigerator for 30 minutes.
10) Take the dough out, dust it with flour, then brush the excess flour off. The dough should be rolled out along the length of the dough block. This is called “turning the dough”. The direction of the rolling is going to be 90 degrees from the first direction.
Press the dough carefully to stretch the dough first before rolling, to maintain the layers.
Roll the dough out to 21”x 8” again, and then do the envelope fold again.
11) Chill the dough again for another 30 minutes.
12) Measure the sugar and put it in a bowl now. You will need it for the next step. I didn’t measure exactly how much sugar I used in the dough itself versus in the molds, but it was about 2/3 or 3/4 of the total amount I used (175g). In other words, much more sugar in the dough than what I sprinkled in the molds.
13) Take the dough out off the fridge and roll it again to the same full size. This time you sprinkle the bottom of the rolling board with a little bit of sugar.
Once you’ve rolled the dough out, then you sprinkle much more sugar on the dough.
Look at the picture to see what I mean by “much more.” Pretty much covered the whole dough with sugar. That much more.
14) Roll the rolling pin over the sugar just to press the sugar down into the dough before you fold the dough. Do one more envelope fold, wrap it and put it back in the fridge.
15) Chill the dough for another 30 minutes.
16) While you are waiting, let’s prep the mold. Butter all sides of the individual molds,
and start drizzling the sugar in to the molds.
Make sure that the sugar is sticking to the butter all around the individual molds. See NOTE#1 about the proper size.
17) Take the dough out of the fridge. Be very careful; the dough is going to be slightly wet because the sugar will melt a little, so handle it extremely delicately.
18) Roll the dough back to full size, or until the thickness of the dough reaches 1/4”.
19) Cut the dough to the proper size to the mold. See NOTE #1 for the proper size.
20) Fold all corners of the dough to the middle and put the dough in the molds.
21) Let the dough proof for another hour or so until the dough increases its volume by 1/3 or 1/2.
22) Bake at 350ºF 15-20 minutes for the tiny brownie molds, 20-25 minutes for the mini-muffin molds. You will need at the least 20-25 minutes to caramelize the sugar properly.
24) IMPORTANT: Take them out of the molds while still hot or you will have fun digging crumbs of toffee and dough out of the molds. This is caramel; it doesn’t really change it sticky property just because there is dough stuck to it, alright? So, be quick and take the Kouignettes out of the molds as soon as they come out of the oven.
25) Do I need to tell you this part?
NOW EAT THEM!
1) I’m using a mini-muffin tin for the 2”x2” size and I have a little tiny molds for the micro size muffin, about 1.25”x1.25” brownie bite molds. I would recommend mini-muffin the first time around because the result is closer to the Kouign-Amann or Kouignette sold in the market.
The tiny brownie molds would give you either too dark and crunchy Kouignettes or not be caramelized enough because of the size. If you bake until the sugar caramelizes properly the inside will already be too dry. You won’t get the soft inside texture with the 2” x 2” size, but you would get the perfect crunchiness on the outside with soft texture on the inside.
If you want a bigger one, you can do it the way famous bakeries do by cutting the dough to a 3”x 3” or 4”x 4” size, depending on your pastry ring (1” high) size. Butter the tray and drizzle with sugar same as the ring and place the ring on top of the tray.
Can you see how many layers of dough we are making here?
Don’t worry about the rest of this, unless you can read it. It’s in Thai for my Thai followers.
ขนมอร่อยสุดๆของฝรั่งเศสอีกอย่าง เอามาแนะนำให้รู้จักกันไว้ ขนมชนิดนี้ไม่ซับซ้อนตรงเครื่องปรุง แต่ซับซ้อนนิดหน่อยในการทำ ก็สไตล์เดียวกับขนมฝรั่งเศสทั้งหลาย ไม่ถึก ไม่อึด ไม่เนี้ยบ ก็ทำได้แต่จะออกมาไม่ค่อยดี ก็ทำคุ้กกี้ เค้ก บราวนี่ไปก่อน อย่าเพิ่งคิดจะลองเจ้านี่ เดี๋ยวจะนึกว่าตัวเองไม่เก่ง จิตตกเปล่าๆ ขนมชนิดนี้ไม่ต้องใช้ฝีมือระดับครัวซองต์แต่มีก็ดี
Kouign-Amann ออกเสียงว่า “ควีนอามัน” หรือ “คูอีนน-อามัน” อย่าอ่านทีละคำเชียว จะไม่เข้าใจว่าพูดถึงเรื่องเดียวกัน
อันนี้เป็นขนมของพวกบรีตอง ซึ่งอยู่ในแค้วนบรีตานีของฝรั่งเศส พวกนี้เขามีภาษาพูดของเขาเองที่ไม่ใช่ภาษาฝรั่งเศส Kouign ในภาษาเขาแปลว่าเค้ก Amann แปลว่าเนย ขนมนี้ก็คือ เค้กเนยของบรีตองนั่นเอง
การทำขนมชนิดนี้ต้องใช้ทักษะในการรีดหรือฝรั่งเรียกว่าการลามิเนต Laminate เพราะเป็นแป้งชั้น ค่อยๆดูตามรูปข้างบนไป แป้งที่นำมาทำเป็นแป้งที่มียีสต์เช่นเดียวกับแป้งครัวซองต์ จึงต้องมีการพรูฟให้แป้งขึ้นด้วย
แป้งอเนกประสงค์ 250g (ใครอยากใช้แป้งเค้ก หรือแป้งขนมปังก็เชิญตามสะดวก texture จะต่างกันเล็กน้อยไม่มาก)
แป้งบัควีท 25g (ถ้าหาไม่ได้ใช้แป้งโฮลวีท หรือแป้งขาวแทนได้ แต่แป้งบัควีทจะเป็นแป้งที่ชาวบริตองใช้กันในขนมอบ ขนมปังหลายอย่าง แม้แต่ในเครปจึงถือว่าเป็นต้นตำรับ)
น้ำอุ่นๆ 140 – 172g (เริ่มที่ 145g ก่อน แล้วดูเอาว่าแป้งแห้งไปหรือเปล่าแล้วค่อยเติมน้ำเพิ่มทีละนิด เราใส่น้ำแค่พอให้โดจับตัวเป็นก้อน น้ำมากเกินไปแป้งจะยานเหมือนนมสาววัยเก้าสิบ น้ำน้อยเกินไปแป้งก็จะเหนียวเหมือนอึนายทุน จะรีดยากมาก หากใช้แป้งโฮลวีทหรือบัควีทจะใช้น้ำมากกว่าใช้แป้งขาว ถ้าใช้แป้งขาวทั้งหมดไม่ควรใส่น้ำเกิน 160g ระวังด้วยว่าเมืองไทยแป้งจะชื้น สูตรนี้ทำในรัฐแคลิฟอร์เนียซึ่งอากาศแห้งพอสมควร เพราะฉะนั้นอย่าได้รีบร้อนเทน้ำพรวดเดียว เดี๋ยวจะพลาดแบบกลับตัวไม่ทัน)
ยีสต์สด 5g (ถ้าจะใช้ยีสต์แห้งแบบ instant ใช้แค่ 2g, ยีสต์แห้งแบบ active dry yeast ใช้ 2.5g ถ้าไม่รู้ว่ายีสต์สามชนิดนี้ต่างกันยังไง ลองไปหาอ่านดู แต่แนะนำว่าในกรณีนี้ให้ลองซ้อมทำขนมปังอย่างอื่นสักสองสามรอบ ก่อนจะลงมือลุยกับควีนอามัน)
น้ำตาล 175 – 225g (ลองหนแรกใช้ 225g เลยก็ได้ แล้วค่อยลดถ้าไม่ชอบหรือเห็นว่าหวานไป แบ่งน้ำตาลเป็นสองส่วน ส่วนแรก 3/4 ของน้ำตาลทั้งหมด อีกส่วนก็ 1/4)
เนย 150 – 225g (อันนี้แล้วแต่ฝีมือรีด มือใหม่ใช้เยอะไว้ก่อนจะรีดง่ายกว่า ขนมนี้อร่อยไม่อร่อย หอมไม่หอมขึ้นอยู่กับเนยเป็นสำคัญ ได้ข่าวว่าเมืองไทยเขาใช้เนยที่ผสมไขมันปาล์มกันเป็นปกติ อยากจะบอกว่าไม่เอานะ แต่จริงๆก็ใช้ได้ เพียงแต่ใช้เนยดีๆมันก็ยิ่งอร่อยนะ หาเนยให้ดีที่สุดเท่าที่กระเป๋าเราจะอำนวยแล้วกัน)
เนยทาพิมพ์ 10 – 20g
วิธีทำ (รูปดูจากด้านบนเทียบข้อกันได้เลย ภาษาไทยนี่เป็นลูกเมียน้อย ไม่ค่อยนิยมเขียนเพราะกฎหมายลิขสิทธิ์บ้านเรา เหมือนกติกาเด็กเล่นขายของ ตามเอาผิดกับพวกหน้าไม่อายตู่ขโมยของเขาแทบไม่ได้เลย)
1) ผสมแป้ง, ยีสต์, เกลือ, น้ำ เข้าด้วยกัน ระวังอย่าให้ยีสต์สัมผัสเกลือโดยตรง ยีสต์สด และ active dry yeast จะต้องใส่ลงไปในน้ำอุ่นผสมแป้งแล้วรอจนมีฟองก่อนใช้ เพื่อจะปลุกยีสต์ก่อน ถ้าเป็น instant yeast ใส่ได้เลย
ผสมจนรวมเป็นเนื้อเดียวกันก็พอ ไม่ต้องขึงฟิลม์ เดี๋ยวเราต้องรีดต้องพับ ผสมมากจะรีดยาก
2) ผสมเสร็จก็ต้องรอพรูฟก่อน พรูฟให้ขึ้นสองเท่า
3) ระหว่างนั้นก็ทำบล็อกเนย นวดเนยจนนุ่มด้วยไม้นวดแป้งก่อน แล้วห่อด้วยกระดาษไข พับให้ได้ขนาดที่ต้องการ แนะนำว่าประมาณ 8 นิ้ว x 14 นิ้ว แล้วรีด จนเนยกระจายหนาเท่าๆกันในกระดาษไขที่พับให้ได้ขนาดแล้ว เอาเข้าไปเก็บในตู้เย็น
หมายเหตุ: ใครอยากใช้วิธีตัดเนยเป็นก้อนๆ แล้วโยนๆลงไปก่อนเอาแป้งห่อแล้วรีด ก็ตามสะดวก ฝีมือเจ้าของ blog นี้ไม่ระดับนั้น ถ้าไม่มี butter block จะรีดไม่ได้ชั้นสวยๆ เคยเห็นพวกโปรเขาทำกัน แต่นั่นเขาเก่ง เรามันมือประถมไม่กล้าทำตาม
4) เมื่อแป้งพรูฟได้สองเท่าแล้ว เทออกมาวางบนกระดานรีดเลย เอาแป้งนวลโรยๆเสียก่อน อย่าเยอะ เอาแค่พอไม่ติดกระดาน รีดออกมาให้ได้ขนาด 8 นิ้วนิดๆ x 21 นิ้ว
5) เอาเนยออกมาจากตู้เย็น แล้วรีดทับอีกทีเพื่อให้เนยนุ่มลง เนยกับแป้งต้องมีความนุ่มพอๆกัน แต่เนยต้องเย็น ละลายเหลวเป๋วเป็นอึเด็กเนี่ยรีบเอากลับเข้าตู้ทันที
6) พอรีดซ้ำจนได้เนยที่นุ่มและมีความยืดหยุ่น สามารถพับได้แล้วก็ เอาลงไปแปะลงในแป้งที่รีดไว้แล้ว จากปลายด้านหนึ่ง มา 2/3 ของความยาว (ก็มันทำมาแค่นั้น ใครแปะได้ยาวกว่านั้นก็มหาเทพแล้วล่ะ) ทิ้งอีกปลายไว้เปลือยๆ ไม่มีเนย
7) พับด้านเปลือยลงมาทับตรงกลางแผ่นโด ทับเนยนั่นแหละ
8) คราวนี้พับอีกหาง ด้านที่มีเนยข้างบนนั่นแหละ ทับลงไปบนหางอันแรกที่เพิ่งพับเข้ามา พับแบบนี้เขาเรียกกันว่า พับซองจดหมาย
9) เอาพลาสติกห่อ แล้วเอาเข้าตู้เย็น 30 นาที
10) พอได้เวลาก็เอาแป้งออกมา เอาแป้งนวลโรยอีก คราวนี้โรยแล้วปัดแป้งออก ราวกับว่าแป้งนี้เป็นหน้าเรา ผัดหน้าทาแป้งตอนเช้าๆ ไม่อยากให้มันเป็นจ้ำๆ ก็ทานวลแป้งให้สวยผ่องอย่างนั้น แต่อย่าพิรี้พิไร รีบๆเข้า อากาศเมืองไทยร้อนระเบิด เนยจะละลายเสียก่อน
เอ้า…รีดดดดดด…แต่อย่าเพิ่งทะเล่อทะล่า จับไม้นวดแป้งได้ก็รีดซะยืดดดด ชั้นมันจะเสีย เพราะเนยทะลัก เอาไม้นวดแป้งกด ย้ำๆไปเป็นช่วงๆ ทำแบบนี้เนยจะได้อยู่เย็นเป็นสุข ไม่ทะลักทะลาย แป้งจะได้ไม่ฉีกด้วย กดๆย้ำๆ แล้วค่อยรีดให้ยาวออกมาเท่าเดิม 8 นิ้ว x 21 นิ้ว แล้วพับซองจดหมายอีกที
อ้อ…รีดตามยาวนะ (ดูรูปด้านบน) มันจะเป็นแนวตั้งฉากกับแนวรีดเดิมที่เรารีดหนแรก
11) เอาพลาสติกชิ้นเดิมแหละห่อ อย่าทิ้งเป็นขยะ พลาสติกมันอายุยืน เราซี้แหงเหลือแต่กระดูกแล้วพลาสติกอาจจะยังปลิวดี๊ด๊าอยู่ได้เลย ห่อเสร็จก็เข้าตู้อีกอย่างเดิม ครึ่งชั่วโมง
12) ชั่งน้ำตาลได้แล้ว น้ำตาลนี้จะใช้ส่วนใหญ่ในแป้งในขั้นตอนถัดไป แต่ส่วนน้อยจะเอาไว้ใช้โรยพิมพ์ แบ่งส่วนเอาไว้ให้ดี
13) เอาแป้งออกมาแล้วก็รีดนาทาเร้นกันต่อ ก่อนรีด อย่าลืมแป้งนวล และคราวนี้โรยน้ำตาลลงไปบนบอร์ดด้วยบางๆ รีดหนนี้เกือบจะสุดท้ายแล้ว รีดให้ได้ขนาดเดิม แล้วโรยน้ำตาลให้ทั่ว อย่างเยอะเลย มองแทบไม่เห็นแป้ง
14) กลิ้งไม้นวดแป้งบนน้ำตาลเสียหน่อย ให้น้ำตาลติดกับแป้ง ไม่งั้นพับแล้วจะหล่นมากกองตามรอยพับ หวานจัดๆกันตามซอกตามหลืบ ไม่ยุติธรรม เกลี่ยให้น้ำตาลมันเสมอๆกันแล้วพับซองกันอีกรอบ
15) ห่อพลาสติก เข้าตู้เย็นอีกครึ่งชั่วโมง
16) ระหว่างรอก็เตรียมพิมพ์ ทาเนยให้ทั่วๆ แล้วโรยน้ำตาลทับ เนยจะทำให้น้ำตาลติดพิมพ์ได้ดี การเตรียมพิมพ์นี่สำคัญมากๆ ขนมจะกรอบมีคาราเมลเคลือบทั่วไม่ทั่วก็ชี้ชะตากันตรงนี้เอง อย่าขี้เหนียวเนย อย่างกน้ำตาล กลัวอ้วนอย่าทำ ขนมนี้แคลอรี่ต่อชิ้นน่ากลัวสุดๆ(ประมาณ 90 แคลอรี่ต่อชิ้นขนาดสองคำ) กินวันละสามสี่ชิ้นก็มากแล้ว
หมายเหตุ: จะใช้พิมพ์ขนาดไหนดี แนะนำว่า 2 นิ้ว x 2 นิ้ว จะดีที่สุด เพราะพิมพ์เล็กกว่านั้นมันสุกเร็วไป น้ำตาลยังไม่คาราเมลเลย ขนมสุกแล้ว จะอบจนน้ำตาลคาราเมลเลยขนมก็แทบไหม้ เพราะน้ำตาลจะคาราเมลที่อุณหภูมิ 350 ºF นี่ต้องอบอย่างน้อยๆ 20 นาที แต่อบนานขนาดนั้นขนมชิ้นจิ๋วๆจะกรอบกร้วมทั้งชิ้นเลย ก็อร่อยไปอีกแบบนะจะว่าไป แต่หนแรกเอาขนาดที่ว่าก่อน จะได้รู้ว่าของจริงเขาเป็นยังไง ที่เหลือก็ตัวใครตัวมัน
17) เอาแป้งออกมา หนนี้ต้องระวังการติดกระดานให้มากๆ น้ำตาลมันเจอน้ำในแป้ง มันก็ละลายน่ะสิ ทำให้แป้งเราเริ่มยานเป็นนมคุณยาย แถมติดหนุบติดหนับเสียอีก โรยแป้งนวลบนแป้งแล้วโรยบนโต๊ะด้วย
18) รีดอีกให้บางประมาณ 1/4 นิ้ว หรือครึ่งเซ็นต์
19) ตัดแป้งให้ได้ขนาด 2 1/2 นิ้ว x 2 1/2 นิ้ว
20) พับมุมทั้งสี่เข้ามาชนกันตรงกลาง แล้วใส่ลงไปในพิมพ์ จับจีบๆเสียหน่อยเหมือนทำทองหยิบสี่กลีบ
21) พรูฟจนแป้งฟูขึ้นมาสัก 1/3 หรือเท่าครึ่งก็ได้
22) อุ่นเตาอบ 350ºF พอเตาได้อุณหภูมิแล้ว อบ 20 – 25 นาที
23) ขั้นตอนสำคัญ: เอาออกมาจากเตาอบแล้ว รีบดึงขึ้นจากพิมพ์ทันที น้ำตาลละลายเป็นคาราเมลขนาดนั้น มันเปลี่ยนสภาพเป็นกาวชั้นดี ถ้าไม่รีบตอนนี้ ตอนจะกินก็ต้องงัดกันบ้างล่ะ เพราะกาวมันจะแห้งทำให้ขนมติดพิมพ์น่ะซิ
ข้อความและรูปภาพ จดลิขสิทธิ์ ใครคิดจะขโมยทั้งรูปและข้อความเพื่อนำไปเผยแพร่หารายได้เข้าตัว ขอให้ผัวซ้อม เมียทิ้ง เป็นมะเร็งตับ มีลูกขอให้มันเนรคุณสมกับบุพการีที่ไม่มีหิริโอตัปปะ blog นี้เขียนเป็นวิทยาทานให้กับทุกคน อย่าได้คิดคัดลอกนำไปเบียดเบียนหากำไรจากผู้อื่น แต่ถ้าจะเอาวิชาไปทำขนมขายเชิญตามสบายค่ะ ใช้ของดีๆทำนะคะ
ผู้ที่อยากได้ภาพและวิธีทำไปแจกหรือสอนเป็นวิทยาทาน(แปลว่าสอนฟรีไม่ได้คิดค่าเรียน) เชิญติดต่อมาทางอีเมล์พร้อมรายละเอียดได้ค่ะ แต่ผู้ที่จะเปิดคลาสสอน(แปลว่าคิดตังคนมาเรียน)ลองอ่าน แล้วไปหัดทำดูก่อน ทำสักสามสี่ครั้งเป็นอย่างต่ำๆนะคะจะได้รู้ปัญหา และวิธีแก้ปัญหา นักเรียนถามจะได้ไม่ต้องยืนแทะเล็บบิดไปบิดมา ทำแล้วก็เขียนตำราเองจากประสบการณ์เสียเลยจะดีกว่ามาลอกของอิฉันนะ บ่องตง
I’m filling a special request before I continue with the noodles series. This dish is not widely known among foreigners yet, but it starting to become popular because the ingredients are quite familiar to most palettes and the flavors are just simply irresistible.
Khao Mok Gai is also a one-plate dish. It consists of yellow fragrant rice sprinkled with crispy fried shallots and served with a piece of chicken that seems to be baked (but isn’t). The authentic Thai won’t serve this dish completely by itself, of course. It would be accompanied with cucumber, tomato and the most important part, Nam Jim. The dipping sauce for this dish is very specific. I didn’t write about it in the “Basic Thai Dipping Sauce” post. Even though this looks green, it’s not the same as the “Nam Jim Seafood”. It has mint leaves and ginger, which is different than in the seafood dipping sauce.
This dish was called “Khao Buri” or “Khao Bucori” in the old times. That’s how the Thai picked up the word “Biryani”. It originated from the Persian merchants who came into the region to trade and brought their own familiar cooking methods with them. It must have been a long time ago, because the dish was mentioned in a Thai literature classic from the 18th century.
If you know how to cook Biryani, you would understand how to cook this dish. Biryani is a way to prepare rice with a lot of herbs and spices cooked along with the meat, which also has been marinated with spices as well. The flavors become quite intricate from the mixture.
The Thai name Khao(rice) Mok (bury) Gai (chicken) is pretty much self-explanatory, because the way you cook this dish is to bury the chicken with the rice and cook them together.
Did I mention that this dish is a Halal dish? Yes, right there in the title. The dish is widely prepared and eaten mostly by the Muslim-Thai, so you can safely guess that there is no such thing as a Khao-Mok-Moo (pork).
The recipe I’m giving you is my own, adapted from my family recipe. This is the first time I measured all the ingredients, so you don’t need to be so strict with the amounts. You can adjust them based on your preference. The spice list is quite intimidating, but if you can’t find some of them, just omit them. It will come out all right anyway. I have done every variation possible and all of them taste good.
You probably found some recipes for this on the Internet vary in amount and type of spices used. As long as they cook it Biryani style, cooking the chicken and the rice together and not making fried rice and serving it with baked chicken, then I would say they should all be good too. Nope, unlike with authentic Thai recipes, I’m not trashing anyone else’s recipe yet. Some would add raisins, cashews, etc. All fine by me.
I even have the super easy cheat recipe down below. The one that involves buying an envelope of the pre-mixed spices, already-fried shallots, chicken, a cup of yogurt and a cup of coconut milk, then you will be good to go (assuming that you have rice in your cupboard at all times, like a good Asian). Even at that, you will have a wonderful Khao-Mok-Gai.
Oh…if I know a simple and easy recipe, why do I sweat it? Because everything fresh and intricate doesn’t just give you pain and no gain. Doing everything from scratch, except maybe raising your own chicken and growing rice, always gives the food much more flavor. Also, I can’t voluntarily stuff too many unknown items in my system and be happy-go-lucky anymore. That’s why! Have you ever heard that food sensitivity tends to increase the longer you live and walk the earth? (Yes, the synonym for that is called “aging”…the ugliest word on earth but still not as ugly as its effect.)
Ingredients for the marinade: (this is for half a chicken 1 breast, 1 thigh, and 2 drum sticks, all with skin and bone attached)
Curry powder 2 teaspoons
Turmeric powder 1 teaspoons (or about 1 tablespoon chopped fresh)
Ground Coriander 1 teaspoons (or 1-1/2 teaspoons whole seeds)
Ground Cumin 1/2 teaspoons (or 3/4 teaspoons whole seeds)
Ground Cinnamon 1 teaspoon
White pepper powder 1 teaspoons (or 1-1/2 teaspoons whole)
Chopped garlic 1 tablespoon
White Cardamom 4 pieces
Clove 4 pieces
Bay leaf 2 leaves
Salt 1 teaspoons
Granulated sugar 2-3 teaspoons
Plain Yogurt 1/2-2/3 cup
Method for the marinade:
1) Roast the dried spices over medium-low heat until they release their aromas.
2) Grind all the spices, either separate or together with the yogurt. I grind them together in the Vitamix but if you don’t have a powerful blender, just buy a cheap $10 coffee grinder and grind all the dry spices together before you mix them into the yogurt.
3) Using a plastic bag or large glass container, dip the chicken pieces in the yogurt mixture, put them in the bag and leave them in the fridge over night. This is REQUIRED—you can’t skip it. At the very least you should marinate the chicken for 4-6 hours.
If you don’t marinate the chicken, it won’t run away while you’re cooking, but the flavors from the spices won’t have enough time to penetrate through the chicken, and the result would be the chicken and the rice, which is full of flavor since it’s in its nature to absorb anything, are going to clash. I wouldn’t do that. If I don’t have enough time to marinate the chicken, I would make the rice and eat it with deep fried chicken instead.
Now we are ready to talk about the rest of the components: the curry rice and the dipping sauce, or Nam Jim.
Let’s start with the charisma of the dish first, the dipping sauce. Thai people have the knack for “flavor adjusting”. The dipping sauce I would make to eat with this dish is full of fresh flavors to contrast with all the spices. There are several versions of the dipping sauce. I already gave you one in the dipping sauce post, Nam Jim Gai or sweet chili sauce.
You can use that one, but this is the proper dipping sauce for this dish.
Ingredients for the dipping sauce:
Spearmint leaves, loosely packed 1 cup (You can get this from the Asian market)
Cilantro, loosely packed 1 cup
Garlic 1 tablespoon
Ginger 1 tablespoon
(Optional) Green chili with or without the seeds, your choice also, as much as you want
(Optional) Green onion 1 stalk (I didn’t use this)
Vinegar 1/4 cup
Salt 1 teaspoon
Sugar 1/4 cup
Water 1/4 cup (My friend told me she uses Sprite or 7-up instead—try it if you like!)
(optional) Plain yogurt 2 tablespoons
Method for the dipping sauce:
1) Boil vinegar, sugar and salt together and let it rest until cool.
2) Puree the syrup, water or Sprite (yogurt too, if used) and all the vegetables together until they are all fine.
Alright, the chicken is marinated, dipping sauce is made. We’re ready for the big day.
Ingredients for the rice:
Shallots, whole about 1 cup
Vegetable oil 1/2 – 2/3 cup
Jasmine rice 2 1/2 cups
(Optional) Fresh garlic 18g
(Optional) Fresh ginger 18g
(Optional) Fresh Turmeric 18g
Salt 1/2 teaspoon
Coconut milk 1 cup
Water 2 cups
Star Anise 2 full flowers
A lot of cucumber and some cilantro
Method for the rice:
1) Slice shallots lengthwise and spread them out in a tray and let them sit to dry out for a few hours, turning them over a few times.
2) Put a wok or a pot on the stove at medium heat. We will be using only one pot so choose one with a lid. Wait until the temperature of the oil reaches 350ºF,add the sliced shallots to the hot oil and reduce the heat to medium-low,
fry until they’re almost golden,
turn off the heat and let them turn golden in the hot oil.Once they’re golden, take them out and lay them on paper towels to drain the oil right away.
You can’t multi-task while you fry shallots (called Jiew in Thai). You have to pay full attention or you could have a mishap just like this.
>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>>> 3) Once you take crispy fried shallots out off the oil, keep the oil in the pan. Turn up the heat to medium-high.
4) Take the marinated chicken pieces out of the refrigerator
and fry them in the shallot-flavored oil,
just to brown the skin. You don’t need to cook them through.
Take the chicken out and rest it.
5) If you don’t want to use fresh herbs in the rice, skip to #6.
If you decided to add fresh garlic, ginger, turmeric to the rice, mush them in a mortar or chop them in a food processor.
6) Take some of the oil out of the wok, leaving only 4 tablespoons (1/4 cup) in the wok
and fry the fresh herbs mixture in the oil at medium heat until fragrant.
7) Add the raw rice into the oil,
and stir fry it also at medium heat or medium-high until the grains are no longer translucent.
8) Add the leftover yogurt mixture to the rice, lower the heat, and stir fry until mixed well.
9) Add the chicken back to the wok.
10) Add water, coconut milk, salt and star anise, bring them to a boil, lower the heat to medium low and cover the wok.
11) Simmer for 15-20 minutes until the rice absorbs all the liquid and the grains are cooked through.
While you are waiting you should slice the cucumber.
12) (Optional) Near the end, increase the heat to medium or medium-high. We’re creating “Tardig”, the crispy rice at the bottom, or the Thai would call it “Khao Tung”. Cook for five more minutes or until you get crispy rice at the bottom. You can see by the color turning slightly brown.
13) Turn off the heat. You are ready to serve. Add the crispy fried shallots to the top of the rice and eat with the dipping sauce and cucumber.
Ingredients for the easy recipe:
Lobo pre-mixed Khao Mok Gai powder 1 envelope
Yogurt 1 8oz. cup
Chicken 1 breast, 1 thigh, 2 drum sticks
(Optional) Shallots, sliced 1/2 cup (You can buy the pre-cooked golden fried shallots)
Rice 2 cups
(Optional) Fresh garlic 1 tablespoon
Coconut milk 1 cup
Water 1 – 1 1/2 cup
Vegetable oil 1/4 cup
Salt as needed
Method for easy recipe:
1) Mix one package of Lobo with yogurt and marinate the chicken at least 2 hours, but preferably overnight.
2) Fry shallots in oil, if you use the fresh ones. Please look at the detail #2 and#3 in the method for the rice above.
3) Take the shallots out of the oil, increase the heat and fry the chicken, just to brown the skin.
4) Take the chicken out of the oil and stir fry the rice with another half the package of lobo and the rest of the chicken marinade. Stir-fry the rice until the grain no longer translucent.
5) Add the chicken back to the pan and add the water and coconut milk, bring them to a boil and reduce the heat to medium low and simmer for another 15-20 minutes until the rice and the chicken are cooked.
6) Served with Nam Jim Gai and A-jad, Thai cucumber salad with shallot.
After being so patient and reading my last two posts that contained no recipes, this time you finally get one. It was so difficult to decide which one was going to be the first in this series. I know that the “Boat Noodles” are quite popular among foreigners, and both noodles with barbecued pork and chicken noodles are also well known.
But I’m going to begin the series with pork noodles. It’s the most popular among the Thais, for sure. You can easily find this type of noodles in every province, even in the Islamic-dominated provinces. No, it won’t be eaten by the Islamists there, but it would be eaten by the Buddhists. So I think this is the most appropriate for the first post.
Pork noodles usually are the noodles with multiple styles of the protein. You would get pork either as pork balls, cooked ground pork, sliced pork boiled or sometimes barbecued, every kind of pork product you can imagine. Then you might get fish balls (really…this is NOT what you think it is, gender has nothing to do with it), fried fish cakes, and some internal pig organs such as intestine and liver (they are not the same as foie gras) together with the noodles and vegetables.
I order mine without the internal organs of the pig, though. I am not a big fan of them. I’m just telling you what to expect. All of these are optional and I opt-out the same way as I opt-out for the chili flakes.
Not only are “Guay Tiew Moo” (you pronounce the last word, “moo” with a high note like you are asking a question) the most popular in Thailand, but they also remind me of my happy family times in Thailand, too.
You know that most Asians usually have big extended families. We do value our family members even when they’re not so great (like me) and we get together often, like once a month at least. When I was growing up, we saw each other once a week, on the weekends. Yes, we had weekly family reunions—so what?!
Any time Thais get together, we eat. Most Asians would do the same. Guay Tiew often showed up as a feast for the gathering because it’s perfect for that. It sure to please everybody. All the accompaniments would be lined up, a boiling water pot on the stove along with another pot for the broth.
Guay Tiew can be served as soon as the water reaches the boiling point. Whoever was ready to eat could just blanch some vegetables, cook their noodles in the boiling water, and add the broth if they so chose. They would then come to the table and compose the bowl mix personalized with all the accompaniments, and season it however they liked: sour, salty, spicy or bland, your call.
Can you see how this can be an all-day eating event? We ate, then we played, and the adults would be talking while we played. Then we would get hungry again, we would make some more Guay Tiew, then go play again. We would keep doing this until the time when we had to go home. We might end up eating about 3-8 bowls of noodles easily during the course of the day. It’s so easy to digest that it goes away easily and you need a refill.
Do you see why I associate noodles with happiness?
Here in the US, I don’t have a large number family members around me, but I still do have a bunch of Thai friends who really appreciate Guay Tiew. So we get together at someone’s house and eat them together. To make them at home is quite elaborate for just yourself. In that case, I just make a simple serving where I throw everything in the same pot, just like you would do to make “extravaganza ramen” from instant ramen noodles.
I normally don’t do the full spread of ingredients unless I have more than four people coming to eat with me. So the first ingredient is to recruit enough people; if you don’t have enough kids of your own, then borrow your neighbor’s kids as props. Once you’ve got your audience, then let’s prep your noodles.
Ingredients for the broth (about 1 gallon)
Pork bones about 1 lb. preferably the leg bones (See Note#1)
Daikon root 1 root (See Note#2)
Dried shrimp or dried squid 2 tablespoons (See Note#3)
Cilantro root 1 root
Fresh garlic, whole clove 2 tablespoons
White pepper 2 tablespoons
Salt 1 tablespoon
Tung Chai 2 tablespoon
Water 1.5 gallon
(Optional) Crystal sugar just in case all else fails to give a sweet taste to the broth; you can use it but make sure you don’t tell anyone. If anyone suspects, deny it firmly. And DO NOT use granulated sugar.
1) If you can’t get leg bones, use pork ribs or chicken backs (I know they can be expensive or hard to find). If you opt for some other kind of pre-made concentrated broth, make sure that there is no MSG in it. BTW, Knorr is unacceptable. You will be banned from my HHG club for at least one thousand and one days!
2) This is the source of sweetness in the broth. You can substitute it with sweet onion, 2 large bulbs, or a few medium sized ones should be plenty. I used to use half a head of cabbage to get the sweet taste, too.
3) This is for the umami taste. We don’t need MSG for that. You can use dried scallops or dried oysters but cut the amount in half; most any dried shellfish is good. Don’t use dried fish.
Method for the broth:
1) Put cold water in the pot and put in everything except the white pepper, then set it over medium heat and go do something else.
2) If there is foam once it starts to boil, scoop it out.
Ingredients for the Noodles: (for 6)
Noodles of your choice as shown in the Episode I (link) or multiple choices
Ground pork 1-1/2 lb.
Thai Trio (cilantro root, garlic and white pepper minced or mushed together) 1 tablespoon
Pork loin 1/2 lb.
Fish balls 1 package or at least 12 balls (Did I tell you that they’re NOT what you think?)
Fried fish cakes 1 package
(Optional) Hard boiled eggs with soft yolk (See Note#4)
Bean sprouts 3-4 cups (or just the whole bag)
Green beans or long beans cut diagonally as shown in Episode II 2 cups
(Optional) Crispy fried wontons (See Note#5)
Fried garlic in oil
Cilantro and green onion, cut as shown in the episode II
Limes cut in wedges (shown in this post how to cut the limes)
Cracked roasted peanuts (I use a food processor or coffee grinder to crush them, but you can use a mortar)
Dried red chili flakes
Red jalapeño in vinegar
4) Put eggs in a pan of room temperature water, enough to cover about one inch over the eggs. It would be best if the eggs are at room temperature as well, but if not let them sit in the water for 10 minutes, pour that water out (the temperature of that water is now colder than room temperature), and add the same amount of water back in the pot. Set it over the stove at high heat, stir the eggs gently (this is optional but stirring them before the water reaches a boil will make the yolks stay in the center). Once the water comes to a full boil (212ºF, 100ºC), turn off the heat and let the eggs sit in water for full 5-6 minutes. Five minutes would you would get a hard white and half semi-soft with runny center. Six minutes, semi-soft center all the way through.
5) Take about 3 tablespoons of ground pork that is already seasoned.
Wrap the wonton skin around 1 teaspoon of ground pork mixed
and fold the skins as shown.
Fry them in medium hot oil about 350ºF.
The skin should fluff right away but the wonton should stay in oil for another minute for the pork to be cooked.
Method for the noodles:
1) Take the whole piece of pork loin and put it in boiling broth, wait until it’s cooked through, then take it out and slice it. I didn’t use a pork loin this time. I couldn’t get pork bones so I used pork ribs and instead of using pork loin, I used pork ribs.
2) Season the ground pork with fish sauce, Thai trio, and, if you like, a teaspoon of sugar and another teaspoon of white pepper also adds a nice touch. Add a tablespoon of water into each pound of ground pork to help make it tender.
3) Use two spoons to make a ball of ground pork and drop it in the boiling broth.
Do one at a time. Wait until they float up on the surface then scoop them out.
You can either put them in a bowl waiting to be added to the noodles or just put them right in the noodle bowl.
4) If you don’t like ground pork in a ball shape, you can just cook it. We call this “Ba-Chor” style. This is how you do it. Put ground pork in a bowl
and add boiling broth, about the same amount as the ground pork,
stir so the hot broth cooks the pork.
The first time you won’t be able to cook the pork through, so pour the broth back in the pot, add more boiling broth to the pork again,
stir and pour it out, and keep doing it
until you cooked the pork through.
5) Slice the fried fish cakes about 1/4” thick.
6) Alright, you’ve got all your pork cooked, so now you are ready to cook your noodles. Make sure the water is boiling, add the noodle of your choice in a basket or sieve. You can buy them from the Asian market as well.
Dip the basket in the boiling water, and use chopsticks to separate the noodles so they will cook evenly.
7) Once the noodles cook, take them out of the boiling water, shake the sieve to get the water out of the noodles, and add the noodles to the bowl.
8) ***Important*** Toss the garlic oil with the noodles right away so the noodles won’t stick together.
9) Now blanch the vegetables
and add them to the bowl.
10) Cook the fish balls and the fish cakes the same way but in the broth.
10) Then start adding all of the cooked pork to the noodles,
add the Tung Chai, cilantro and green onion.
Then you start seasoning it with fish sauce, sugar, chili, vinegar or lime.
If you want it soup style, you better add the broth to your bowl
and season the broth.
12) Garnish with crispy fried wontons, then do not wait—eat!
I mentioned before that you can have it salad style, guay tiew hang,
or soup style, guay tiew nam.
If you want salad style you are ready just toss everything together after you season it. Taste to see if you get your preferred taste.
Noodles are just like pasta. You don’t get the full enjoyment unless there is sauce, or they’re tossed with something else to make a salad, or dropped in soup. What makes noodles great are those “accompaniments”.
What do Thai people do with noodles?
First of all, there are two types of Guay Tiew (Thai noodle dishes), one is dry like salad, Guay Tiew Haeng (Haeng=dry), noodles with no broth or very little broth. And another one is with broth just like a noodle soup, Guay Tiew Nam (Nam=water). The same vendor can make you both types and most likely Thai people would order more than one bowl and have one dry and one with soup. You have to know how to order, though.
As I already told you, Thai noodles are the “one dish meal” or “one plate food” which signifies that the dish comprises all the food groups in one bowl. Noodles take care of the carbohydrate portion, so it would be safe to guess that the accompaniments would include some kind of protein, vegetable and fat.
The main accompaniments are protein and vegetables. Those two food groups are the ones that determine what “type” of Guay Tiew we are going to be eating. Seriously, any foreigner who experienced Thai noodles for the first time would have thought, “All Guay Tiew are alike”…Noooo, they are all different, just like all Asians are, right? And you better believe me. I am not one of those Asians that you can blindfold with dental floss, my eyes are kinda round. I’m practically white, you know. :p
Let’s see what’s the possible ingredients are: beef, pork, chicken, fish, duck, meatballs, fish balls, barbecued pork, stewed pork leg, roasted duck, stewed duck, boiled chicken with herbs, tender beef, shrimp dumplings, stewed chicken wings, beef balls, stewed beef with beef blood, stewed pork with pork balls, chicken with bitter mellon, boiled fish, fried fish, and many more. This is just a short list and I haven’t counted the Chinese, Vietnamese, Malaysian, or Singaporean variations in the list yet. I haven’t even counted the ones that have multiple meat choices in the same bowl, either!
Sometime I wonder, if I set up a competition between Asian noodles and European pasta, who would have more varieties? I’d like to find the answer by eating them all, eventually.
Alright, after you pick the type of protein, then you pick the vegetables. The choice of vegetables is not as wide as the meat category, but it actually can be anything. The most popular choices are
Mung bean sprouts or Thua Ngok ถั่วงอก in Thai
Snake bean, Yardlong bean, Asparagus bean or Thua Fak Yao ถั่วฝักยาว in Thai. This can be substituted with green bean if you can’t find them.
Chinese Broccoli or Chinese kale or Gai Lan in Chinese and Phak Ka Nar ผักคะน้า in Thai;
This is how you cut them for the Thai noodles.
Water spinach, Water morning glory, and Chinese spinach are all the same vegetable with multiple names, also called Ong Choy in Chinese and Phak Boong ผักบุ้ง in Thai;
Chinese flowering cabbage or Choy Sum in Chinese and Phak Guang Toong ผักกวางตุ้ง in Thai
Chinese cabbage or Bok Choy, Pak Choy in Chinese
Ivy gourd or Phak Tam Leung ผักตำลึง in Thai
Bitter melon or Mara มะระ in Thai
Pickled mustard greens or Phak Gad Dong ผักกาดดอง in Thai
I think I covered all of the possibilities, but I haven’t lived in my home country for nearly two decades. I might have missed something here and there.
I will discuss the proteins and vegetables in each recipe I will write about, but in this episode I would like to discuss about the common ingredients that will exist in every bowl of Thai noodles first. These are not something so prominent you would detect them right away, but they are so important.
These accompaniments are like the supporting actors in movies. You don’t really care much about them, but without them the movies would not be movies. If you miss these accompaniments, it won’t be Thai noodles.
2) The supporting characters, the accompaniments for Thai noodles
2.1) Golden fried garlic in oil, กระเทียมเจียว (Kratiam Jeaw)
If I don’t have freshly fried garlic, I don’t make noodles. This is how important this accompaniment is. I don’t advise you go buy the already crispy fried garlic in the jar either, because we need the remaining oil to toss with the noodles to prevent them from sticking to each other.
Golden fried garlic is a very common flavoring item in Thai household and also in Thai cuisine. Nearly every house has it in the cupboard. This is what sets Thai noodles apart from any others. We use it in many, many dishes too. The smell of fried garlic is as Thai as the curry paste, I’m telling you.
I love noodles with freshly fried garlic, or Boiled rice, Khao Tom , so I fry my garlic in small batches. Do you know why I have a microwave even though I don’t really ever use it to cook? Because there are two things that are done really well in the microwave: fried garlic and corn on the cob. Yes, I fry my garlic in the microwave. This takes about 2-5 minutes.
First you need to have at least one teaspoon of chopped garlic in oil per each bowl of noodles. (I use about one TABLESPOON in each bowl, or more if the bowl is big. It’s a little overkill but I like it this way.) Add one tablespoon of oil per each teaspoon of chopped garlic. Then you put them together in a big bowl. Yes, a big bowl, because it is going to foam up in the microwave and eventually overflow if your bowl isn’t big enough.
I never do less than two tablespoons of garlic, so the timing here is for that amount. You can adjust it according to your microwave power.
You put the bowl in and the first round you do for two minutes. Then take the bowl out and stir. See how high the foam reached? Now you need to scrape all the garlic back into the oil.
Then put the bowl back in, cook at high for another two minutes, take it out and stir again. This time the foam got even higher than last time. The garlic should be starting to get golden.
I normally put it back in again for another 30 seconds and stop cooking at this point. The hot oil will continue cooking the garlic a little afterwards. You should get the more crispy garlic once the oil cools down.
This total time of 4:30 is for my own microwave and I don’t expect your microwave will work the same way. You have to try it on your own by cooking the first time for 2 minutes, then keep repeating the process one minute at a time for a few more times until you get the garlic looking golden and nearly crispy. Then stop. If your fried garlic doesn’t get crispy after you the oil cools down, then put the garlic and oil back in the microwave again. After doing this for a few times you will know the right timing for your microwave and can take it out and stir only once or twice the way I do.
Can we make fried garlic in a wok or pan? Yes, of course. You start with medium high heat until the oil is hot then you drop the chopped garlic in and reduce the heat to medium, or even medium low.
This method will foam up until you can’t really see the garlic, but trust it and continue cooking, stirring often.
Continue cooking, and once the garlic starts to be ready the foam will subside and you can see the garlic again. Keep the heat at the medium low at the most until you see the garlic start to golden, then turn off the heat and let it cool. Same as cooking in microwave, the hot oil will continue cooking even more so than the microwave hot oil. You should get golden crispy garlic at the end.
Traditionally, the oil of choice for me is lard, and I fry small pieces of pork fat to get it;
Then I fry the chopped garlic in that lard. At the end I drop the crispy fried pork fat into the fried garlic mix. This is the best type of golden fried garlic. Lately, after we’ve been conned by the American soybean oil manufacturers saying that pork fat clogs your arteries, a lot of Thai vendors stopped using that…Sadly.
Well, they are starting to use it more now since they noticed that the vendors that didn’t stop using the golden crispy fried garlic with bits of pork fat didn’t cause anyone a heart attack. In fact the vendors themselves nearly got a heart attack from overwork because even more customers kept pouring in. Those lard-using vendors also employed that as an advertising point to bring in more customers.
Pork fat rules!…Yay!
By the way, please read Time Magazine’s June 26th issue (came out two weeks ago) “Eat Butter”.
2.2) Green onion and Cilantro, ต้นหอมผักชี (Ton Hom Pak Chee)
This is another bits and little pieces of flavor that you can’t miss. Almost every noodle dish in Thailand would be sprinkled with roughly chopped green onion and cilantro.
You just have to slice green onion about 1/8”-1/4” long and do the same with the cilantro. You can use all the stems of the cilantro, and the green onion can be used nearly all the way down to the white part.
This is not as critical as the former two, but it would add a nice flavor to your noodle dishes. It’s an elongated cabbage, pickled. In Chinese the cabbage itself is called “michihili”. The cabbage is called Pak Kad Hang Hong, ผักกาดหางหงษ์, in Thai.
It’s salty and contains some strong flavor that also adds the smell of home (my home, not yours, obviously) to the dish. You shouldn’t use more than a teaspoon in a bowl of your noodles. You can find the Tianjin preserved cabbage in any Asian grocery store. The way to spot it is the container. The original container is small brown ceramic, never more than 3” tall, round, about 4”-7” diameter, fat in the middle with small opening on top like the picture on this site.
If you look for the container like this, you won’t miss it. It is available in every Asian market, I assure you. The shape of this container is so classic that we, the Thai people, would understand if we said someone has a “Tang Chai jar shape”, we would know that the person has a beer belly! (It’s quite insulting, even though it might be true to anyone’s eyes, and we only use it toward girls so I don’t recommend calling any girl “Kra Pook Tang Chai”, if you don’t want to get in trouble.)
I used to like the original one too, but these days there are so many pebbles in the preserved cabbage, indicating how clean the process isn’t. I’m very sketchy about buying food from China, too. I have so much food sensitivity I don’t want to risk it. I am very close to making my own, but I don’t exactly know how to yet. I will have to try someday since now I’ve got the yeast they use to ferment the cabbage already. This is the brand I’m using these days. It’s from Thailand and so far it has been clean, without pebbles and no MSG added.
Would you be surprised if I said this is the entire required list?
Yes, three items.
The rest will show up in each recipe. I am not going to discuss it now but I would like to remind you that Guay Tiew NEEDS the set of condiments called Poung Phrik. You will not see any noodle vendors in Thailand doing business without it!
3) Behind the scenes, but still necessary for Thai Noodles, A set of condiments, Poung Phrik พวงพริก
Remember when I wrote about Thai dipping sauce, I told you that Thai people like to dress their foods to fit their palette. This set of condiments is quite important. No one eats their noodles the same way. The chef who makes these noodle dishes is not French, you know. There are no food Nazis in Thailand.
Once you’ve got your noodles, you taste them first, then you start to add the condiments you want to adjust the taste to your preference. Sometime you don’t need to do it at all, and sometimes it doesn’t matter how many times you dress your noodles, it won’t come out the way you want.
No, I will not tell you how much of what you should put in your noodles, but I will tell you the specific condiments that you will be putting in your Poung Phrik. The basics are:
3.1) Fish sauce
3.2) Granulated sugar
Those two don’t need further explanation, and they’re staples. The other two items would be different for each noodle dish.
3.3) Vinegar, or some form of souring agent
This can be:
3.3.1) Distilled vinegar with sliced pieces of chilies.
3.3.2) Mushed chili and garlic with a little vinegar. This one can have red or yellow chilis, too.
3.3.3) No vinegar, but wedges of limes will be on the table or inside the noodle bowl.
3.3.5) No vinegar, just squeezed lime juice as the substitute.
3.3.6) Black vinegar with sliced chili.
We’re not kidding about this. Yes, you might have chili in the vinegar, but that’s not enough. We provide another type of chili as an option, too.
3.4.1) Red chili flakes or powder, the basic.
3.4.2) Chopped, cut up or mushed chilies, either bird’s eye chili or Serrano chili, dry, no vinegar of course (or else I would listed it with the vinegar section, right?)
3.4.3) Red chili flakes stir fried in oil. I’m telling you this one usually is “hellish”. Your mouth will be on fire if they serve this in the Poung Phrik. It’s a common item in Khao Soi. Scary indeed!
3.5) Cracked peanuts
This is usually shows up with the pork, duck or chicken noodles but not with beef noodles or fish noodles, but these days, I can’t guarantee you that.
Alright, the basics are over. Next week, you will get the first noodles recipe. Thanks for putting up with me and my urge to dissect the easy task and make it complicated. ;)
I just took some time off to celebrate an event which acknowledges that I’ve officially grown a year older, even though I’m constantly growing a day older every day but that doesn’t count until it totals a year. To celebrate the year, I would like to offer a present to my readers, which are recipes of my favorite food in the world, the various different kinds of noodles in Thai cuisine.
I’ve actually been wanting to write about this for a long time, but I chose to write about curries first before the non-Thais out there ruined my country’s heritage even further with their know-it-all (that really should be called “don’t know a thing”) attitude. I’m about 80% through with my curry paste recipes, so now I can start a new subject.
I love all kinds of noodles and I could live on noodles for months before I even thought about rice. Thai noodle are something you would consider as a “one plate food”, or อาหารจานเดียว, because you don’t need multiple dishes to have a meal, as you would with rice. You get all the food groups together in one bowl.
Are you thinking this is starting to look like a series? You’re correct.
If you’ve ever been in Thailand and walked the streets, you would have seen noodle vendors on almost every corner. If not, then there would have been many vendors bunched together on one corner. They’re all selling noodles, but all different kinds.
So that’s why this is becoming a series on its own. You will get recipes for several different kind of noodles, almost like you’re walking the streets of Bangkok. I can’t guarantee that you will get every kind, but you are going to get as many as I know and love to eat.
And by the way, I’m not completely done with the curry pastes or the omelets. You will see them pop up here from time to time. I am a true gemini; I can’t be satisfied with just one of anything. You get to experience how confusing life with a gemini can be without having to be married to one, like my poor husbanditor!
Before we even begin, I need to prep you first because we have our shared ingredients that are found in every kind of noodles, and then there will be the different ingredients in each kind.
Wait…I almost missed one step due to my excitement writing about my favorite food of all time..the history! (Yeah, yeah, yeah, you can skip the next six paragraphs then, if you don’t care.)
I’ll start with what we say noodles in Thai. We call them “Guay Tiew”, ก๋วยเตี๋ยว. All noodle names start with guay tiew, such as guay tiew moo = noodles with pork, guay tiew neua = noodles with beef, guay tiew tai = noodles with chicken and so forth. The words are from the Teochew Chinese word 粿條/粿条 pronounced “guotiao”, meaning cooked rice strips.
Guay Tiew arrived in Thailand probably since King Narai Maharat or King Ramathibodi III of the Ayutthaya Kingdom from 1656 -1688. Ayutthaya was the former capital city of Thailand before Bangkok. King Naria was the most famous Ayutthayan King, and he allowed trading among several international merchants. He opened the population’s eyes to the existence of other countries overseas and accepted their cultures, including food cultures.
However, there is no written evidence regarding the penetration of the most important food culture to Thailand (and to me), the noodles invasion. It could be hidden somewhere in those dusty documents in the “control room” of the Thai National Library but I have not come across one yet. I need to take Claratin and go back there someday to do more research.
The written evidence of the second noodle invasion happened during the King Taksin era, in 1734 – 1782. Thon Buri, the capital city in his era, was on the right (West) bank of the Chao Phraya River and was combined as a part of Bangkok during the current era, the Rattanakosin Kingdom. During his time, just as in the King Narai era, Thailand traded with several foreign merchants who brought their own food cultures to the Thai people.
Guay Tiew is the simple dish that Chinese people cook and eat in their boats. You boil noodles, the meat of your choice and vegetables, you put them in a bowl, add broth in the bowl together with seasonings, then you are done, ready to eat. This is a dish eaten with chopsticks, not the fork and spoon of the typical Thai etiquette.
Of course, the Thai adopted the dish but they twisted it to fit their palate. So, the noodle dishes these days are quite different than the guay tiew of the old time. If you ever paid attention to the noodle dishes you saw in each country, you would have observed that they each have their own character. You can also tell the origin of that particular noodles dish by the ingredients.
We’re now going to discuss the character of said Thai noodles. Are you ready?
1) The leading characters, The Noodles.
The first thing we need to talk about is the noodles themselves. We can’t talk about the plays without talking about the lead characters, right? The noodles that are popular in Thailand are rice noodles and wheat noodles. I can tell you the four staples noodles that we eat, but it’s really not limited to just four. I will introduce you to the rest as I expand the Noodles series.
1.1) Sen Yai (Sen=line or noodles, Yai=big), the big fat rice noodles that the Cantonese Chinese called ho fun, or shahe fen in Mandarin Chinese.
These are the noodles made with rice and tapioca flour. They have been mixed with water, then steamed to cook and greased with oil to prevent sticking to each other while they stack them like this before they are packed in a bag and sold to you at the Asian market.
What do you need to do?
Of course, separating them is a must.
You will have to peel them apart, which is not difficult, before you use them, or else you will get the whole stack stuck to together, which is not pleasant to eat.
This is the same noodle I used for Pad See Ew, Pad Kee Mao, the drunken noodles, and in the future I will give you more recipes that use these noodles: Guay Tiew Rad Nah – the rice noodles with meat, chinese broccoli and gravy sauce, Guay Tiew Neau Sub – noodles with ground beef and curry powder, Cha Guay Tiew – noodles stir fried with many ingredients Singapore and Malaysian style, Guay Tiew Kua Gai – noodles stir-fried with chicken, and much more.
Do I need to tell you that this is my favorite type of noodle?
How do you buy and store Guay Tiew Sen Yai?
Fresh noodles are recommended. You can buy them at any Asian market.
You can store them outside the refrigerator for a day or two and after that you have to store them in the fridge to keep them another week or longer. The noodles will turn in to a hard brick once you put them in the fridge. You’ll need to pop them in the microwave for a minute or two or steam them again for another 5 minutes to soften them up before peeling them apart. If you don’t warm them up you’ll end up breaking them in pieces. Not good.
You can also buy the dry ones, too. I don’t use them at all because I can always find the fresh ones. The dry ones need to be soaked in water (room temp) for a while before they can be used.
I can also give you a recipe to make your own fresh noodles. If you care to know, ask me.
1.2) Sen Lek (Sen=noodles, Lek=small), the small rice noodles about the size of linguini. This kind is sometimes called Sen Chan or Guay Tiew Chantaburi, and also rice sticks.
These are also cooked rice noodles that have been dried partially before being packed in a bag for sale as fresh rice noodles. These noodles are more stretchy and chewy than Sen Yai. I used Sen Lek in my posts for Pad Thai and Sen Chan Pad Pu (Easy Pad Thai). You’ve probably seen them in Pho, the Vietnamese noodles soup too.
Sen Lek are also available both fresh and dried. I don’t object to the dried Sen Lek as much as dried Sen Yai because their quality and texture doesn’t deteriorate as much. You can buy dried Sen Lek if you can’t find fresh ones and just soak them in water before use.
Where to buy Sen Lek?
Same place as Sen Yai, an Asian market. This is the same brand and usually they store them in the fridge.
You should store these in the fridge. They can be stored up to a month or longer. Before use, just see if the noodles have some moldy spots. If you know you are not going to use them for a long time, you can dry them out and store the dried Sen Lek outside the refrigerator.
1.3) Sen Mee, the rice vermicelli. This is a very, very thin rice noodle that makes angels feel like their hair is too rough and coarse. They are so fine and the texture is so delicate. These are the noodles that I use to make Mee Krob and Mee Kra Ti (Those are two very popular Thai dishes among foreigners. Please remind me to share those recipes here in the future in case I forget).
These are also called Mee Hoon or Bi Hun in Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. I think in Hong Kong they call this type of vermicelli Singapore noodles. (Please advise if I’m wrong here. I’m not so sure about it since I don’t speak Chinese.)
They are white, fine and delicious. This type is not my favorite, but that’s just me. My sister loves Sen Mee so much. Sen Mee don’t come fresh, but always in a dried form. I like the brand Wai Wai the best because I’ve eaten this brand since I was a kid. Noooooo, not because the manufacturing company just happens to belong to my friend’s family, not at all…(I can’t be lying through my teeth when I didn’t “say” the words past my teeth, I typed them).
I really am telling you the brand I prefer. (Again if they’re weren’t good, they wouldn’t be able to sell Sen Mee all over the country and all over Asia, right?) I BUY my Sen Mee from the store, too; No one gives them to me for free or anything.
Anyhow, you have to soak the vermicelli in water before you use them.
1.4) Ba Mee, the egg wheat noodles. I am introducing the first wheat noodles here. Do not get confused between Sen Mee and Ba Mee. Ba Mee is the Chinese egg noodle, so they appear to be yellow, either by food coloring or by egg yolk. I gave you the recipe of fresh egg noodles here in the past, if you want to make the fresh ones.
If you don’t want to make them fresh, you can buy them from the Chinese market.
I also don’t like the dried ones because they seem to lose their stretchy and chewy properties once they’re dried.
These four are the staple noodles in the Thai noodles market. The rest of them here are not as popular, but since I’m going to write about all kind of noodles, I might as well list them all here.
>>>>>>>>>>>>1.5) Woon Sen, the cellophane noodles made from mung bean flour, are also another popular choice. I have a recipe for Yum Woon Sen, or cellophane noodle salad, here and in the near future I will have more recipes. You can use Woon Sen to make Pad Thai too. It’s delicious.
Cellophane noodles also don’t come in fresh form. They’re always dried and packed in a bag. You have to soak them in water before use.
1.6) Guay Jub, the rolled rice chips or rice flake sheets, is another rice noodle that is rolled together in a tight tube.
When you buy the noodles they look like chips, but once you boil them, they will get rolled in together. This type of noodles would be served with two types of soups in Thailand. One is a clear broth, and another one is a dark soup filled with Chinese spices.
I’ll show you photos of this type of noodles in cooked form when I get around to the recipe.
1.7) Giam Ee noodles, the rice pin noodles, are rice noodles that have a diameter about 1/4”, round, are short, about 2” long, with pointed tips on both ends.
This is really a unique noodle but you still see it at street vendors from time to time. It’s not as popular, but also not forgotten.
1.8) Mi Sua, the extremely thin salty wheat noodles, only eaten in the Southern part of Thailand. This type of noodle is made by pulling the dough and stretching it so, so super far until the dough comes out very thin and fine. This link is showing the picture of the factory who makes these noodles.
Think about how thin the Sen Mee are, and Misua are even thinner!
1.9) Kanom Jeen; I think I’ve mentioned all of the noodles that we use in Guay Tiew, but I don’t want to omit these rice noodles even though we don’t normally eat them in the category of Guay Tiew, but we make a specific sauce to eat them with. I gave you a few recipes already to eat with Kanom Jeen, Kanom Jeen Sao Nam, Kanom Jeen Nam Ya Tai. You will find that people eat green curry, Kaeng Khiao Wan, with Kanom Jeen as well, or even eat them with Som Tam, the green papaya salad.
All right, now I’ve really completed the noodles list. You now officially know the lead characters of Thai Noodles, Guay Tiew. In the next episode I will tell you more about Krueang Guay Tiew. Sorry, you have to put up with me for another episode before I even give you any recipes.
I’m filling another request, in part because I’m impressed and genuinely surprised that there are foreigners who know about our little Kanom Tuay. It is considered street food, not from any royal court anywhere except a court under a bridge in Bangkok!
You know that in Bangkok there will be people erecting their houses from pieces of cardboard, plywood, and bits and pieces of items found under the bridges and freeways, right? They live there with stolen electricity, using safety pins jammed through the rubber casing of the main power lines, with their electric cords attached to those safety pins. (My dad used to be the CFO of The Metropolitan Electricity Authority and had to deal with the various ways that people stole electricity all over town. This is the most popular method, even though it has killed large numbers of people already.) Of course, it’s illegal, but when money isn’t that readily available to buy or rent a home, you learn several different ways to survive.
I didn’t mean to teach you how to steal electricity or educate you about the life of the Bangkok homeless. I was just telling you that this dessert I’m giving you the recipe for this time isn’t anything complicated, or for the elite. In fact, it is just a very common dessert that every household at every level can enjoy.
Kanom Tuay might have many different spellings, such as Kanom Thuay, Kanom Tuai, Khanom Thuai or even Khanom Thuay, but all refer to the same thing, as long as they don’t have “fu” or “foo” attached as part of the name.
In the past, you could find this dessert everywhere in the city, but it might not be as common these days as Westerner desserts seem to be taking the leading role in Thailand. Kanom Tuay used to be sold by a solo merchants, either a man or woman (but mostly women), who carried two baskets hanging from cradles that hung from the tips of a beam balanced on one shoulder, calling the customers by proclaiming, “Kanom Tuay Mai Ja”, asking “Do you want any Kanom Tuay?” (You can see the image by clicking on this link; the site is in Thai language but shows several pictures of those baskets).
These days, sadly, they are seen much less around the country, both the merchants carrying the balancing baskets and the Kanom Tuay!
I asked the person who requested this recipe how she knew about this rice custard. She said she went to a noodle place in Bangkok and they just had them sitting on the table, and she saw people eat them after their meal or while they were waiting for their noodles to arrive. So she tried them and fell in love, so now she wants to know how to make them.
I can’t find the history of Kanom Tuay. It seems like it is too common, and so no one cares to reveal its history or origin. My guess is it’s just because it’s made from basic local ingredients that can be found in any household, so no one bothered to trace it.
The Kanom Tuay name is actually is shortened from the real name, Kanom Tuay Talai. Tuay or Thuay means cup and Tuay Talai is a very tiny cup. As you can see from the picture below.
The cream-colored and the white cups with the blurred stripes both are the “Tuay Talai” or ถ้วยตะไล; the smaller size has an opening that isn’t much bigger than a quarter coin. The shallower cups are the big Tuay Talai; we use these kind much more these days because it’s easier to scoop the custard out. You don’t need to use these cups. You can use small ramekins cups or any small cups you can find.
For someone who’ve never eaten this rice custard, it has two parts: the bottom is the sweet part, we call it the body or “tua” (ตัว), soft but sticky, and the top part is called the face or “nah” (หน้า) and is salty and creamy.
It’s unlike any Western dessert. The bottom (sweet) part has the texture of custard but there is no egg in it. The closest thing I can compare it to is caramel custard or flan, but it doesn’t break or fall apart as easily. It stays together due to some stickiness of the rice flour. Then there is the creamy, salty coconut top, which is not sticky at all, but creamy. It’s a blend of sweet and salty, sticky and creamy; heavenly!
I think you might have to try to make it once just to get the idea. It’s quite easy, so it shouldn’t be a problem.
Ingredients for the body part:
Rice flour 60 g or 1/2 cup
Mung bean flour 10 g or 1 tablespoon (If you can’t find it use tapioca starch instead)
Arrowroot starch (Bob’s Red Mill’s) 35 g or 3 tablespoons, or use tapioca starch (See NOTE #1)
Palm sugar 165-175 g or 1/2 cup
Thin coconut milk 200 g or 1 cup (See NOTE #2)
(Optional) Pandan leaf extract 1/4 cup (See NOTE #3) If you can’t find it or don’t want to use it add 1/4 cup of thin coconut milk.
1) I never tried the recipe with tapioca starch myself, but I’ve been told it works as a substitute.
2) This is how you extract thin coconut milk:
Take the coconut milk out of the can, put in a jar, then refrigerate the coconut milk jar overnight.
The cream will stay on top and the water will drop to the bottom. Skim the cream and save it for the top part, and use the rest for the bottom mix.
Another method would be to mix coconut milk with water at a ratio of 1:5.
3) Pandan leaf extract
Use 5 pandan leaves,
crushed and mixed with 1/2 cup of water,
then squeeze and squeeze until you see the water turn green, then extract about 1/4 cup of green water out.
Method for mixing the body part:
1.1) Mix all the flour
1.2) Add the thin coconut milk a little at a time, using a whisk to stir them together.
1.3) Add palm sugar and pandan leaf extract and let it sit until the palm sugar softens, then mix until it becomes smooth.
1.4) Rest the batter for at least half an hour, stirring every 10 minutes.
Ingredients for the face part:
Coconut cream 385 g or 2 cups
Salt 6-8 g or 1 teaspoon
Rice flour 45 g or 5 tablespoons
Method for mixing the face part:
2.1) Mix everything together and stir with a whisk
You should end up with 2 cups each for both body and face.
Method of cooking Kanom Tuay:
3.1) You need to have a steamer. I use this but you don’t need to buy one, just use your steamer or modified steamer setup is fine.
Put water in your steamer and put your cups in the rack. You need to steam the cups empty for 10 – 15 minutes first before you put any batter in them. This will help when releasing the custard from the cups.
3.2) After your cups are ready, stir your batter again before you pour the contents into the cups, starting of course with the body mixture first. Fill only 3/5 of each cup. If you like sweet sweet you can fill 3/4 of the cup.
Warning: I take the section of the steamer where I put the cups out away from the steamer to pour the batter in. If you want to do it over the stove, lower the heat and wear a mitt.
3.3) Steam the bottom-filled cups at high heat for 8 – 10 minutes, depending on the size of your cups. You might need more than that. You can test if the body part is firm by touching the top. If it’s firm to the touch then you are ready to pour the face part.
3.4) Open the steamer again; you can take the pan section away from the steam or lower the heat. We are cooking dessert here, not your hand.
Pour the top mixture onto of the partially cooked bottom part. This time you fill all the way to the rim of the cups. You can see some green part mixed with the white surface here. It’s because the body that wasn’t cooked got mixed with the face part. It’s ok. I was worried that the face wouldn’t stick with the body if I steamed the body too long so I ended up undercooking the body a bit.
3.5) Steam for another 8 – 10 minutes. You don’t want to steam too long because the top part has so little rice flour, and cooking for too long will cause the coconut cream to break and the custard will have a cracked face. If the face part doesn’t set, next time you might want to add more rice flour, but do it little at a time. You don’t want it to be too hard either.
3.6) Take the custard cups out of the steamer and let them cool down completely before you dig in to them, or else they won’t release from the cups that easily.
(But they’re good warm too; who cares about the cup once the custard is already in your tummy, right?)